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This projectwas conceived as a constructive, modular and prefabricated system, allowing the stadium to be built in stages.The galvanized metal trusses are repeated rhythmically,creating acloak that covers the stadium. They are clad in aluminum panels, opaque or microperforated, generating semi-transparent planes.

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The Castelão stadium was alsoremodeled for the 2014 World Cup,with the modifications following the guidelines of the original 1970s design. Its externalenvelope is covered by a translucent "skin" leaving its concrete structure visiblefrom the inside.Concrete pillars were established through its inclinationto provide a guiding element to develop the new steel structure and the constructive logistics. The 60 steel trussed columns were installed to perform two main functions: diminish the vibrations from the stands and support the new roof structure.

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With a capacityfor 30,000 spectators, this stadium is characterized by its perforated metal façade. From the inside, the transparent external walls allow views of the surrounding city. The stadium's retractable roof also gives it flexibility and increases the sensation of permeability and openness.

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This stadium has a capacity for 10,000 people and stands on a 46,000 square meter property. Like the previous structures, it seeks to generate permanent visual relationships between interior and exterior through a colorful curtain wall facade with horizontal and vertical parasols. The large volume of the building is reduced by its transparent façade and slender 15-meter beams.

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Home to one of the most important basketball teams in China, the stadium has a capacity for 15,000 visitors. "The steel roof structure of the stadium has a diameter of 157 meters. It consists of an external, vertically undulating pressure ring. From this are suspended 28 ribbons, on which lattice frame structures are placed for bracing. The roof area is supported on zig-zag shaped struts. A unique feature worldwide is the cable network facade between roof and floor, which consists of triangular panels with insulating glazing."

Osborne sat down for two interviews with Dean for the film, the second one taking place just two weeks before his death last March. “He was fantastic,” Dean says. “He really loved her, and he’s the one who gives us a portrait of what she was like.”

Osborne’s first interview shapes the film’s beginning, Dean says. A year and half into the production, the director thought it would be fitting for Osborne to give the film its ending as well, so she called and asked if he’d sit for one more interview.

“He said, ‘You know, I’ve got a cold so I might not be at my best, is that O.K.?’ And I said, ‘Sure, O.K., it doesn’t matter if you’re at your best . . . whatever you want, we’ll do.’ Well, he showed up in a wheelchair, and he was not at all the man I’d interviewed a year and a half previously,” Dean recalls. “He was only able to give us a half an hour—but in that half an hour he really poured his heart out about Hedy.”

Though Lamarr’s life ended on a somewhat tragic note—she died a recluse with minimal recognition of her inventive talent—Dean promises that the film offers her some form of redemption, thanks largely to the previously unheard tapes.

“She opens the tapes by saying ‘I wanted to sell my story . . . because it’s so unbelievable,’” Dean recites. “‘It was the opposite of what people think.’”

Now people have a chance to learn the truth.

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Grace Kelly and Naomi Watts Both with irritatingly blemish-less complexions and that baby-blond hair, Kelly and Watts represent the less-is-more beauty school. Why shellac on the face paint when you look like that, first of all—and when the world’s best diamond houses are all clamoring for the chance to your neck? Kelly, at left, is photographed circa (1955), in which she was all chiffon evening gowns, Riviera tan, and icy jewels. (The film’s wardrobe earned legendary costume designer Edith Head an Oscar nomination.) Watts channels Kelly at last May’s Cannes Film Festival, wearing romantic Marchesa silk and Chopard gems.
Natalie Wood and Anne Hathaway You might think Audrey Hepburn with Anne Hathaway’s gamine haircut, and we see your point. But Anne’s strong-browed, doe-eyed sex appeal reminds us more lately of Natalie Wood, shown here in a Warner Bros. 1961 promotional still for The movie gave Wood her second Oscar nomination (her first came after 1955’s ). Hathaway’s first-frost Chanel Couture two-piece, worn to the 2013 Golden Globes, is oh-so-Woodian—as is that second nomination. Thanks to her performance in she will appear at the 85th Academy Awards for a best-supporting-actress nod.
Simone Signoret and Jacki Weaver A French-film powerhouse and Oscar winner for 1959’s Simone Signoret is like Jacki Weaver in her renown for range, diversity in roles, and a long, decorated career. She’s shown here in a still from 1952’s for which she won a bafta for playing a blond bombshell mixed in with a circa-1900 crime syndicate. Australian actress Weaver, likewise, makes use of swooping blond bangs, dynamite curves, and palest-blue eyes in this photograph from the 2011 Academy Awards, nominated for best supporting actress after appearing in (2010). The dress is by fellow Aussie Collette Dinnigan.
Jane Wyman and Sally Field With heart-shaped faces, soft brown curls, and—is there any other way to put it?— eyes, Oscar winners Wyman (for in 1949) and Field (for both and ) resemble each other physically, or did after Wyman’s career-changing switch to “sensitive brunette” after an early period of “fizzy blonde.” They also have a preference for classic, quiet silhouettes over the spangly, showy, or cantilevered. Wyman, left, wears a black-lace trumpet gown and dainty opera gloves in a studio shot; Field arrives earlier this winter in black, lacy Dolce Gabbana at the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
Gene Tierney and Rachel Weisz Tierney was one of the great screen beauties of the 1940s, and a celebrated actress too: she was nominated for an Oscar for 1945’s and starred in enduring classics such as and At left in dark lace, Tierney displays the high cheekbones, full lips, and rich, dark hair that made her the W.W.II-era Rachel Weisz, Oscar winner in 2006 for Weisz here arrives at the 2013 Golden Globe Awards in dotted black lace, a gown by Louis Vuitton.
Vivien Leigh and Jennifer Lawrence Nothing has recalled Vivien Leigh lately like Lawrence’s recent outing in (ha!) Dior, with its blouson-ing bustline and metal-cinched waist (Civil War–era corsets, we hope, were not involved). But their intrinsic looks have a similarity, too: both are magnetic on-screen and possess—as dramatically highlighted in in Lawrence’s case—a feline, narrowed-eyes sex appeal that flares when playing angry. Leigh is here in a 1940 studio portrait, wearing a plunging neckline and the era’s de rigueur red lip; Lawrence hoists her Critics’ Choice Award at the 2013 ceremony, to which she wore deep-V’ed leather-and-silk Prabal Gurung.
Susan Hayward and Jessica Chastain Last year, we allowed that Jessica Chastain’s fashion choices and beauty reminded us of Deborah Kerr, given their shared taste for red-head-flattering jewel tones. This year, with Chastain’s repeated preference for blue, we thought of Susan Hayward—Oscar winner for 1958’s , in which she played a real-life woman wrongly sentenced to death. Chastain also starred in 2012 as the ballsy heroine of a real-life drama, in and for the performance has earned her second Academy Award nomination in two years. She’s shown here, at right, in Calvin Klein Collection and Harry Winston jewels at the 2013 Golden Globe Awards.
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Naomi R. Lamoreaux and Kenneth L. Sokoloff
PNAS November 12, 1996. 93 (23) 12686-12692; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.23.12686
Naomi R. Lamoreaux
Kenneth L. Sokoloff

Relying on a quantitative analysis of the patenting and assignment behavior of inventors, we highlight the evolution of institutions that encouraged trade in technology and a growing division of labor between those who invented new technologies and those who exploited them commercially over the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. At the heart of this change in the organization of inventive activity was a set of familiar developments which had significant consequences for the supply and demand of inventions. On the supply side, the growing complexity and capital intensity of technology raised the amount of human and physical capital required for effective invention, making it increasingly desirable for individuals involved in this activity to specialize. On the demand side, the growing competitiveness of product markets induced firms to purchase or otherwise obtain the rights to technologies developed by others. These increasing incentives to differentiate the task of invention from that of commercializing new technologies depended for their realization upon the development of markets and other types of organizational supports for trade in technology. The evidence suggests that the necessary institutions evolved first in those regions of the country where early patenting activity had already been concentrated. A self-reinforcing process whereby high rates of inventive activity encouraged the evolution of a market for technology, which in turn encouraged greater specialization and productivity at invention as individuals found it increasingly feasible to sell and license their discoveries, appears to have been operating. This market trade in technological information was an important contributor to the achievement of a high level of specialization at invention well before the rise of large-scale research laboratories in the twentieth century.

The generation of new technological knowledge is one of the fundamental processes of economic growth. Despite its importance, however, scholars have only an incomplete understanding of how the sources of invention have changed over time with the development of technology and of the economy more generally. Although there has been recent progress in establishing basic historical patterns in the composition of patentees and in the levels of patenting over place and time, issues such as how resources were mobilized and directed to inventive activity, as well as how they were organized, have not yet been systematically investigated ( Buscemi Woman Embellished Twotone Leather Hightop Sneakers White Size 39 Buscemi NlionD
5 ).

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